Renal failure is the medical term that indicates an inability by the kidneys to perform their functions properly (cleansing the blood of waste products, regulating the hydro- saline and acid-base balance of the blood, producing erythropoietin, etc.). In this article, we will give you a complete guide about how to prevent kidney failure?
Those suffering from kidney failure suffer from a serious health condition, deserving of adequate and timely treatment.
So there are two types of kidney failure: acute kidney failure and chronic kidney failure. The first is reversible, while the second has irreversible effects. Because the causes of kidney failure are numerous and require a careful diagnosis of their correct identification. And treatment depends on the type of kidney failure. In general, both the acute and the chronic form include causal therapy, symptomatic therapy, dialysis and the adoption of a particular lifestyle.
A brief review of the kidneys
Two in number, the kidneys are the main organs of the urinary or excretory system because the excretory system is the set of organs and anatomical structures responsible for the production and elimination of urine.
Returning to the kidneys, these reside in the abdominal cavity, on the sides of the last thoracic vertebrae and the first lumbar vertebrae; they are symmetrical and have a shape that is very reminiscent of that of a bean.
The most important functions of the kidneys are:
- Filter waste substances, harmful substances and foreign substances present in the blood and convert them into the urine.
- Regulate the hydro-saline balance of the blood.
- Regulate the acid-base balance of the blood.
- Produce the glycoprotein erythropoietin.
The blood on which the kidneys act comes from the renal artery and returns to the venous system through the renal vein; renal vein, which then rejoins the vena cava.
The anatomy of the kidneys is quite complex: the image below shows the main anatomical elements of a generic human kidney.
What is kidney failure?
Kidney failure is a serious medical condition. Whose presence is indicative of an inability on the part of the kidney to perform its functions properly.
WHAT HAPPENS WHEN KIDNEYS WORK WRONG?: How To Prevent Kidney Failure
When the kidneys work poorly, various mechanisms are skipped:
- The mechanism of disposal of waste substances present in the blood. Because this involves the progressive accumulation of these substances and the consequent intoxication of the blood.
- Two important parameters that describe the number of waste substances accumulating in the blood are azotemia and creatininemia.
- BUN is the concentration of non-protein nitrogen (or urea ) in the blood; non-protein nitrogen is a waste product of protein metabolism.
- Creatininemia, on the other hand, is the concentration of creatinine in the blood; The creatinine is a waste product resulting from the metabolism of creatine of the muscles.
- ‘ high azotemia and, likewise, high creatinine levels are indicators of a malfunction of the kidneys.
- The mechanism for regulating the hydro-saline balance of the blood. So this involves the accumulation of fluids (oedema) in various parts of the body. For example, in the legs or ankles.
- The mechanism for regulating the acid-base balance of the blood. This results in an alteration in blood levels of electrolytes. Such as phosphorus and potassium.
- The mechanism of erythropoietin production.
Doctors and kidney disease experts distinguish two types of kidney failure: acute kidney failure and chronic kidney failure. The criterion of distinction is the speed with which the kidneys lose their functional capacity. In acute How To Prevent Kidney Failure, the kidneys lose their function suddenly and suddenly. The term “acute” refers precisely to the suddenness with which the medical condition is established.
In chronic renal failure, on the other hand, the kidneys lose their functional capacity in a gradual, progressive manner. So it is the loss of kidney function is an inexorable and slow-moving mechanism. That can last for months or even years.
While in the case of acute renal failure. Because it is possible to restore renal functions (therefore the condition is potentially reversible), in the case of chronic renal failure the recovery by the kidneys of their functional capacity is, as a rule, impossible. Such as you will see, for both conditions, there are treatments. But their purpose is different.
So the causes of kidney failure are numerous and represent an extensive topic. Therefore, for the sake of clarity, this article will deal separately with the triggers of acute renal failure and the triggers of chronic renal failure.
CAUSES OF ACUTE RENAL INSUFFICIENCY
Acute renal failure can arise in the presence of:
- Conditions that slow or block blood flow to the kidneys.
- These conditions include:
- myocardial infarction (or attack the heart );
- The heart diseases ;
- liver failure. It is a serious medical condition, the onset of which implies the inability of the liver to perform its functions correctly;
- Inadequate intake of aspirin, ibuprofen, naproxen and other similar drugs;
- The allergic reactions ;
- The severe burns ;
- The dehydration severe ;
- The bleeding severe ;
- Inadequate intake of blood pressure-lowering drugs ( hypotensive drugs ).
Conditions or events that directly harm the kidneys. These conditions include:
- The formation of blood clots in the arteries or veins of the renal blood vessels ;
- The formation of cholesterol deposits in the renal blood vessels. So this obstructs the flow of blood through the kidneys; How To Prevent Kidney Failure.
- The glomerulonephritis, namely the ‘ inflammation of the kidney glomeruli (see figure relative to the anatomy of a kidney);
- The so-called hemolytic-uremic syndrome. So it is a disease of the blood and kidneys. In addition to causing acute renal failure, this condition also causes microangiopathic hemolytic anaemia and thrombocytopenia ;
- Infections in the kidneys ;
- The systemic lupus erythematosus. So it is an autoimmune disease. That can cause glomerulonephritis;
- The assumption of pharmacological substances or used in the medical field. Such for example chemotherapy, the antibiotics, the contrast fluid for diagnostic imaging examinations and l ‘ zoledronic acid ;
- The multiple myeloma ;
- The scleroderma, a disease of the skin and connective tissues, which also damages the kidney blood vessels;
- The purple thrombotic thrombocytopenic, a sporadic blood disease;
- The by poisoning alcohol, cocaine or heavy metals ;
- The vasculitis, or inflammation of the blood vessels.
Conditions that block the flow of urine within the organs and structures of the excretory system. These conditions include:
- The bladder cancer ;
- formation of blood clots in the urinary tract ;
- cervical cancer in women;
- cancer of the colon ;
- Benign prostatic hypertrophy in man;
- kidney stones ;
- prostate cancer in humans;
- damage to the nervous structures that control the bladder.
NB: it must be pointed out. That many of the conditions acting on the urine flow along the excretory system are also the cause of chronic renal failure.
CAUSES OF CHRONIC KIDNEY INSUFFICIENCY
The main conditions or diseases that can cause chronic kidney failure are:
- Type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes ;
- Hypertension ;
- The glomerulonephritis ;
- The interstitial nephritis, namely an inflammation of the renal tubules and surrounding structures (to identify the renal tubules, see figure relative to the anatomy of a kidney);
- The polycystic kidney ;
- A prolonged obstruction in the urinary tract. The causes of obstruction include benign prostatic hypertrophy, kidney stones and some neoplasms in the organs adjacent to the structures. That make up the urinary tract;
- The reflux vesicoureteral. Because it is a disease characterized by the ascent of urine from the bladder towards the ureters, first, and then the renal pelvis;
- The kidney infection, such as pyelonephritis (inflammation of the renal pelvis).
RISK FACTORS OF ACUTE RENAL INSUFFICIENCY
The subjects most at risk of acute renal failure are the elderly, diabetics, people with hypertension, heart patients, carriers of kidney disease, individuals with liver disease, people with high cholesterol levels in the blood and carriers of the so-called peripheral arterial disease.
RISK FACTORS OF CHRONIC KIDNEY INSUFFICIENCY
The subjects most at risk of chronic renal failure are diabetics, people with hypertension, heart patients, smokers, individuals with high blood cholesterol levels, the obese, the elderly, people with a history of family members of kidney disease, African-American individuals, Native Americans, and Asian Americans.
Symptoms and Complications
The symptoms and signs ofHow To Prevent Kidney Failure are numerous.
Dall ‘ elevated BUN (or azotemia ) depends on the presence of:
- Vomiting and diarrhoea. These two conditions often involve dehydration
- Weight loss
- Nocturia (i.e. needing to urinate at night)
- Frequent urination, with urine having a light colour
- Reduced urination, with the urine having a somewhat dark colour
- Blood in the urine
- Difficulty urinating
Dall ‘ phosphorus accumulation in the blood ( hyperphosphataemia ) depends on the presence of:
- Damage to the bones
- Lack of bone repair in case of bone fractures
- Muscle cramps or spasms
From the accumulation of potassium in the blood ( hyperkalemia ) depends on the presence of:
- Muscle paralysis
- Heart rhythm abnormalities
From the accumulation of fluids in the various tissues of the human body ( water retention ) depends on the presence of:
- Swelling in the legs, ankles, feet, hands and face
- Pleural effusion and/or pericardial effusion, conditions resulting in dyspnoea (or shortness of breath ) and chest pain.
From the lack of production of erythropoietin. Because it depends on a reduced production of red blood cells and a state of anaemia resulting, this state of anaemia involves:
- Sense of fatigue, tiredness and weakness
- Memory problems and confusion
- Difficulty concentrating
Finally, due to the failure of other renal mechanisms, the following may appear:
- Foamy urine
- Loss of appetite
- Trouble sleeping at night
- Darkening of the skin
THE TYPICAL SYMPTOMS OF ACUTE RENAL INSUFFICIENCY
Typical symptoms and signs of acute renal failure include decreased urine output, lower limb oedema, sleepiness, dyspnoea, fatigue, confusion, nausea, seizures and chest pain.
THE TYPICAL SYMPTOMS OF CHRONIC RENAL INSUFFICIENCY
Symptoms and signs of chronic kidney failure appear gradually.
The classic clinical manifestations of this medical condition are nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite, a sense of fatigue and weakness, disturbed sleep at night, impaired urine production, reduced mental acuity, muscle spasms and/or cramps, hiccups, oedema of the lower limbs, itchy skin, chest pain, wheezing and hypertension.
WHEN TO SEE THE DOCTOR?
So the presence of the aforementioned symptoms and signs should prompt an individual to immediately contact their doctor and consult with him on what to do.
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Kidney failure is a medical condition. So that requires proper treatment. Otherwise, the patient’s life is in grave danger.
COMPLICATIONS: How To Prevent Kidney Failure
How to prevent Kidney failure is itself a complication of other conditions or diseases.
That said, its further worsening may coincide with: worsening of water retention (a condition of pulmonary oedema is established ); an even greater risk of bone fractures. So the appearance of impotence or reduced libido. Because it is damage to the central nervous system, with all the consequences of the case; a reduction of the immune defences (therefore a greater susceptibility to infections); for a woman, the inability to get pregnant; the need to undergo dialysis or kidney transplant surgery; finally, death, especially in the absence of adequate or timely treatment.
For a correct diagnosis of kidney failure and its triggering causes. The following are essential: physical examination, anamnesis, blood tests, urinalysis and some diagnostic imaging tests.
In some situations, the use of a kidney biopsy may also be essential.
OBJECTIVE EXAMINATION AND ANAMNESIS
Physical examination and medical history are two diagnostic assessments because that provides useful information about the patient’s symptoms and signs.
Furthermore, they allow the doctor to understand the state of health of the person under examination. And to get an idea of the possible causes of the symptoms in progress.
So the blood tests allow measuring the blood concentrations of urea. That is the azotemia – and of creatinine – that is the creatininemia.
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BUN and creatinine are two parameters because that allows for a meaningful assessment of an individual’s kidney function.
So the urinalysis provides information on the causes and characteristics of renal failure present in an individual.
So among the possible diagnostic imaging tests. Because the ultrasound – which allows an evaluation of the anatomy and size of the kidneys – and the abdominal CT scan – which provides three-dimensional images of the kidneys rich in details deserve mention.
The renal biopsy is a minimally invasive diagnostic test, which consists of collecting a sample of cells from a kidney (renal cell). And in its subsequent analysis in the laboratory.
Performing the kidney biopsy involves local anaesthesia and the use of a long needle for aspiration of the kidney cell sample. So renal biopsy is useful in clarifying the causes of renal failure.